Kenny Erleben and Sheldon Andrews
Inverse kinematics (IK) is a central component of systems for motion capture, character animation, motion planning, and robotics control. The field of computer graphics has developed fast stationary point solvers methods, such as the Jacobian transpose method and cyclic coordinate descent. Much work with Newton methods focus on avoiding directly computing the Hessian, and instead approximations are sought, such as in the BFGS class of solvers. This paper presents a numerical method for computing the exact Hessian of an IK system with spherical joints. It is applicable to human skeletons in computer animation applications and some, but not all, robots. Our results show that using exact Hessians can give performance advantages and higher accuracy compared to standard numerical methods used for solving IK problems. Furthermore, we provide code and supplementary details that allows researchers to plug-in exact Hessians in their own work with little effort.
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Sheldon Andrews, Kenny Erleben, Paul G. Kry, Marek Teichmann
Iterative methods are popular for solving contact force problems in rigid body dynamics. They are loved for their robustness and surrounded by mystery as to whether they converge or not. We provide a mathematical foundation for iterative (PROX) schemes based on proximal operators. This is a class of iterative Jacobi and blocked Gauss–Seidel variants that theoretically proven always converge and provides a flexible plug and play framework for exploring different friction laws. We provide a portfolio of experience for choosing r-Factor strategies for such schemes and we analyze the distribution of convergence behaviors. Our results indicate the Gauss-Seidel variant is superior in terms of delivering predictable convergence behaviour and hence should be preferred over Jacobi variants. Our results also suggest that Global r -Factor strategies are better for structured stacking scenarios and can achieve absolute convergence in more cases.
Alba Granados, Marek Krzysztof Misztal, Jonas Brunskog, Vincent Visseq and Kenny Erleben
Analysis of voice pathologies may require vocal fold models that include relevant features such as vocal fold asymmetric collision. The present study numerically addresses the problem of frictionless asymmetric collision in a self-sustained three-dimensional continuum model of the vocal folds. Theoretical background and numerical analysis of the finite-element position-based contact model are presented, along with validation. A novel contact detection mechanism capable to detect collision in asymmetric oscillations is developed. The effect of inexact contact constraint enforcement on vocal fold dynamics is examined by different variational methods for inequality constrained minimization problems, namely the Lagrange multiplier method and the penalty method. In contrast to the penalty solution, which is related to classical spring-like contact forces, numerical examples show that the parameter-independent Lagrange multiplier solution is more robust and accurate in the estimation of dynamical and mechanical features at vocal fold contact. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the temporal integration schemes in relation to the contact problem, the results suggesting an advantage of highly diffusive schemes. Finally, vocal fold contact enforcement is shown to affect asymmetric oscillations. The present model may be adapted to existing vocal fold models, which may contribute to a better understanding of the effect of the non-linear contact phenomenon on phonation.
Screen casts and slides by Kenny Erleben for Teaching in Inverse Kinematics
This material was used to give students in Numerical Optimization classes a case-study to apply their own implemented methods on.
Guest Editors: Jan Bender, Barbara Solenthaler, and Kenny Erleben.
This special issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications will provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners in the field of physically based animation to publish their latest work.
Have a look at the call for papers.